1)During formal celebrations or occasions, food, tea or vodka should be given and received with the right hand extended and the left hand supporting the right elbow.

2)Use two hands or the right hand to offer or to take something.

3)Roll down your sleeves before taking or giving something, or before being introduced to an older person.

4)Hold a cup by the bottom, not by the top rim.

5)When giving knives or scissors, offer the handle, but not the blade.

6)It is not polite to say no when the host offers tea, food or dairy products.

7)It is rude not to offer a guest a cup of tea or coffee, some candy, etc.

8)Passing a snuff bottle is a formal occasion (see 1). You may actually take a pinch or sniff the bottle's top. Before passing the bottle to another, you should offer it back to its owner. If you sample the snuff, do not screw the cap back on - simply leave it on the bottle neck, with the snuff blade inside.

9)When offered vodka or airag, accept it. Drinking it is not necessary, but you should touch it to your lips as if tasting it, and return the cup or bowl to the person who handed it to you. You may also dip your ring finger into the drink, raise your hand above your head, and flick your finger to the four winds.

10)Mongolians touch each other more than Anglo-Saxons. It is normal to see men or women holding hands or putting their arms around each other's shoulders.

11)It is normal for Mongolians to not introduce friends they are with to the friends they meet.

12)Mongolian friends sometimes visit each other's house without calling; it is not considered rude.

13)It is impolite to put your feet or shoes on chairs or tables. To show the bottom of your feet when sitting in close proximity to another is offensive.

14)When you enter a ger, do not step on the threshold. Usually, guests move in a clockwise direction to the west and north. The east side of the ger is the women's side, and the west is the men's.

15)Mount and dismount a horse from the left side.

16)It is rude for a woman to sit cross-legged in a ger.

17)If Mongolians spill airag, milk or other dairy products on the ground, they will dip their fingers into it and touch it lightly to their forehead.

18)Do not whistle inside gers or any kind of building.

19)When offering a drink, consider that it is better to present a cup without cracks or a damaged rim.

20)It is rude to walk across an area where women are milking their cows.

21)Usually, you must not give things to others by holding the item between the lateral edges of your fingers.

22)When Mongolians arrive at a ger, they yell, "Catch your dog!", or simply enter. This is because every ger is protected by a guard dog.

23)Avoid standing up when drinking tea or other beverages.

24)Avoid sitting at the corner of a table. It is believed that doing so will ensure a lonely life.

25)If you step on or touch someone else's foot, offer a quick handshake.

26)It is oddly redundant to say, "Sayn bayn o?" ('How are you?') to the same person more than once in the same day.

27)Mongolians tend to touch one another, even those whom they do not know.

28)Mongolians tend to not introduce third parties.

29)Mongolians do not like cats. If one crosses their path, they spit over their left shoulder three times.

30)If Mongolians see a shooting star, they think someone is dying, and so spit over their shoulder and say, "It's not my star!"

31)Some Mongolians have names like "Not This", "No Name", "Vicious Dog", etc. These names are given because of problems the family had with a child before that child was born. The names thus become taboo, misfortune is avoided, and evil spirits are confused. Other examples include "Don't Know", "Not A Human Being", "Nobody", "Not At All", "Not This One", and "Not That One".

32)If food or other items are placed out when a group sits together, it is communal property. Cigarettes, for example, placed on a table belong to the group.

33)When offering a cigarette, you should also offer to light it. Cigarettes as gifts must be accompanied by matches. Two people may light their cigarette from one match, but three is not permitted.

34)Do not throw trash into an existing fire. Save it to start the next fire.

35)Books, papers, and valuables should not be left on the floor.

36)Hats should always be placed with the open end down. A man's hat and belt should never be placed on the floor, and should not touch other hats or belts.

37)If given a gift of food in a container expected to be returned, do not return the container to its owner empty. Put something in it, such as candy.

38)If dairy products are given to you, return the container with rice.

39)If you take a person's photograph, you should give that person a copy.

40)When being greeted, you should always say that things are well first. Later in the conversation, you may discuss difficulties or problems.

41)A conversation should begin with an inquiry about family, livestock, health, etc. Then you may discuss business.