The following were culled from Mongolia's two English weeklies,
The UB Post and The Mongolian Messenger.

October 2000
CulturePoliticsEconomyBrieflyOdds & Ends
Movie of the Week: Deuce Bigalow, Male Gigolo
Schneider is Deuce Bigalow, a bumbling fish tank cleaner. When Antoine, a successful gigolo with a sick fish, has to leave the country for a few weeks, he offers Deuce the opportunity to housesit for him. Predictably, Deuce manages to trash the place and must enlist the aid of pimp TJ to help him pay for the damages. TJ turns him, in a series of absurd preparations, into a prostitute. The subsequent encounters with self-conscious females provide the film with its biggest laughs, and eventual moral: enable a woman to feel confident about herself, and she will learn to love you no matter what you look like.

Soros Programs Aid Mongolian Development
”Mongolia is a middle country for receiving financial support from the Soros Foundation, and one of the top countries for financial support per capita,” said executive director Christopher Finch during a press meeting for the 1999 report of Soros Foundation activities in Mongolia.
There are more than 30 countries – in Africa, the Americas, Central and Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union – that have Soros Foundations and 10 further countries that are granted financial support. According to Mr. Finch, its annual core budget is U.S. $3 million, plus there are also scholarships worth $1 million and a $1 million matching-grants fund.
Mongolia is one of the countries that has its own Open Society or Soros foundation. The Mongolian Foundation for Open Society was founded in 1996. It operates in the cultural, educational, health, humanitarian, and legal sectors.
Soros is one of the largest donors for the nation’s development. The foundation offers to the public information concerning its activities, including announcements of projects and scholarships to be implemented in designated areas.
“Ten years have elapsed since the victory of a democratic revolution and the start of political, economic and social reforms I the country. A nation that no longer has government-run newspapers… [and] court rulings that triggered public awareness of equality of all before the law… are just a few features of Mongolia in the final year of the passing millenium. For the Mongolian Foundation for Open Society, it has been a period of rendering further support to implementing reforms in education, demonstration of advantages and making available potentials of information technology to the public, enhancement of the elements of civil society, initiatives in arts and culture, as well as in the media and publishing sectors. In doing so, emphasis was placed on building professional communities through launching public discussions and debates,” notes the annual report of the Mongolian Foundation for Open Society.
Education is the foundation’s major area of concentration. Programs have included School 2001, English Language, Critical Thinking, Step by Step, Health Education, Debate, Street Law, Higher Education, Education Advising Resource Center, and national scholarship programs. According to D. Enkhbaatar, a coordinator of one of the main programs in education – the three-year School 2001 program – the aims of their program are to support students, educators, and administrators in coping with the challenges placed on a developing democratic society, as well as providing school-based reform initiatives for innovative pedagogical concepts, student assessment strategies, and the dissemination of these new ideas.
For Mongolians living in the former economic system, it was rare to receive an education abroad except in a few socialist countries. As of 1999, the foundation has granted scholarships to 196 people to study abroad in the UK, the USA, and in other developed nations. The scholarships were for students in high schools, colleges, and universities.
Under the framework of the “Support for Networks” program, the foundation organized the first National Information and Communication Technology Summit in June 1999, in conjunction with the Mongolian government, the UN Development Program, and Mongolian informational technology organizations and companies. Also in 1999, Community Information Centers were established in three aimags – Dornod, Omnogov, and Bayankhongor – in addition to the Ulaanbaatar-based centers. Now the three aimags have been provided with an opportunity to access information and knowledge, to be linked with the outside world via the Internet. “Similar to the capital city population, those people living in these [aimags] now have access to EBSCO Publishing electronic database of over 3,000 full-text journals, newspapers and news wires, as well as over 1,000 pamphlets and full-text reference books,” noted the annual report.
The civil society arena includes programs such as Media, Legal Reform, NGO Support, Women’s Program, Local Government, East-West, Open Grants and an Open Web Center.
L. Togsjargal, program coordinator, noted that 1999 was a favorable year for the health sector. He mentioned many of the projects implemented: “Under the Medical Internet grant project, three selected health clinics in Ulaanbaatar were given access to e-mi and the Internet. Current medical information can be sought out using these tools. A new Palliative Care Center is projected for Mongolia based in the National Cancer Center.
”Though financing is not as large as in other areas, it is true that the most visible programs are those started in the area of culture and art,” says Ts. Ariunaa, art and cultural program coordinator. The foundation’s performing arts programs have been supporting developments in modern dance and theater. The Soros Foundation sponsored the Carmen-Suite ballet played by the Morin Huur Orchestra, “Bolero” modern ballet by G. Onon, and the “Melodies of the Drum” concert for percussion by S. Soronzonbold. Contemporary art exhibitions by many young Mongolians were shown to the public under their financial direction.
This year’s National Book Fair is the third such annual fair funded by Soros.
In 1999, the foundation expanded into the economic development field in this country. In cooperation with German Technical Assistance and Konrad Adenaur Foundation, it has launched a training program in the economic sector.
According to Mr. Finch, “It is the speed with which people and organizations are changing, and the openness of Mongolian institutions and its people to new ideas,” that allows his foundation to have such success in Mongolia.

Ulaanbaatar’s Population on the Increase
The population of Ulaanbaatar has increased by 3.5 percent since 1992. Last year, the capital’s population reached 770,000. Compared with the previous year, it increased by 13 percent, with most of the people coming in from the countryside. Mongolia has a population of 2,300,000, and one third of the population lives in UB. Residents of the surrounding Tov aimag tend to resettle in UB. Approximately 2,000 people from Tov aimag came to the capital to take up residence this year. Citizens of Bayan-Olgii came to UB in relatively fewer numbers than citizens from other aimags. Only over 50 people moved to UB from Bayan-Olgii.
By 1999, 15,200 people had resettled in UB. In the same year, only 800 people left the capital for residence in other towns and the countryside. There are 160,000 families in UB, half of them consist of 4- to 6-member families, 40% are comprised of 10-member families or more.
Ten years ago, during the communist regime, resettling in UB and other towns was a strenuous process, with only high-ranking and cunning people finding a place, often through corruption and other illegal means. Students graduating from domestic and foreign universities, colleges, and other professional schools were required to work in the countryside, and more than once, people who criticised the communist system of residency were exiled to the countryside.
Today, it is a citizen’s right to choose where he or she wants to live and work in Mongolia, according to the new democratic Constitution approved in 1992. Settling in the capital is now a limited problem for most people, depending on their means of income. People who choose to live in the capital are divided into two groups. The first group is made up of mostly poor citizens. Their incomes are often gained through salvaging such things as aluminium cans and recyclable paper, or through low-paying jobs in the service industry. The second group comprises the wealthy, who move to Ulaanbaatar in order to further their businesses and influence.
Last year, 4,500 couples married, 12,200 babies were born, and 4,600 people died in the capital.

Internship Opportunity in Thailand for Mongolian Newspaper Journalist
At the request of the UNDP Mongolia, a leading English daily newspaper in Thailand, “The Nation”, expressed its willingness to host one Mongolian newspaper journalist as an intern for a 6-month period, starting from January 1, 2001. A successful candidate will work at the newspaper to gain working experience in different areas of modern newspaper journalism. (Contact: Mireille Guillou)

Ignorance of Sexual Diseases High Among Youth
Knowledge of what sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are is scant among young people in Mongolia aged 15-18, say researchers from the State Health Centre. 64.1% of young adults aged 19-25 and 35.9% of adolescents aged 15-18 said that they knew what STDs were and could name them for interviewers. 82.3% of all research subjects said that they have had sexual relations with 1-2 partners. 10% said they they have had sex with more than 4 persons.
Although those interviewed said that it was good to have health classes at school, they revealed that the classes were of poor quality – too general and no providing enough information about the contagious diseases.
Researchers also discovered that young people knew more about AIDS than any other STD.

Imperiled Reindeer Herders : The Tsaatan People
Mongolia consists of two predominant ethnic groups : Khalkh and Kazak, and many smaller groups, such as the Buryat, Uriankhai, Torguud, Uzemchin, and Tsaatan peoples, who are differentiated, in part, by their locales, cultures, languages and economies. Currently, as globalisation threatens to conquer the world, the question of how to keep ethnic identities alive has become a significant query that has attracted the attention of not only governing bodies, but of mankind at large.
The Tsaatan ethnic group is now on the edge of extinction, so to speak, warn both domestic and foreign researchers. The Tsaatan is one of the minority ethnic groups in Mongolia. According to the 2000 census, there are approximately 400 Tsaatan people in the nation. Officially, they belong mostly to Tsagaan Nuur and Ulaan-Uul soums of Khovsgol aimag, which border Tuva and Russia. Their economy is based mostly on reindeer breeding. (Tsaa means ‘reindeer’; -tan, a possessive suffix, means they have ‘tsaa’). Tsaatan traditional lifestyle and culture are not separable from reindeer breeding; but according to researchers and veterinarians, the reindeer herds have diminished. Only one-third of the total reindeer population is female, a poor statistic.
Magali Schneider, a French researcher, states that three groups – Tsaatan, Todza and Tofalar – were the first people in history to domesticate reindeer. “This is the reason why they will be placed on the ‘human heritage’ list. Not because they are poor, but because they have culture and knowledge,” she emphasises.
S. Battulga, a zoologist and one of the founders of the Mongolian Reindeer Fund, said that in 1989, the Tsaatan of Ulaan-Uul and Tsaagan Nuur held a ceremony involving the celebration of 1000 reindeer. But now there remains less than 500 reindeer in Tsaagan Nuur soum. The Mongolian Reindeer Fund believes that the main reason for the decrease in reindeer numbers is the adoption of a privatized economic system, carried out at the beginning of the 1990s. As a result, reindeer farms were moved into private hands, and government support of the Tsaatan was lost.
Currently, 32 families, comprised of approximately 170 people, spread to two places in Baruum and Zuun Taiga, and are breeding the 500 remaining reindeer. These families are 70-80km from the soum centre, and move 7-8 times a year. Taiga is the only place where the reindeer are bred.
According to anthropologist O. Sukhbaatar, another founder of the Mongolian Reindeer Fund, 14-15 reindeer are allotted to a Mongolia reindeer-herding family, while 150-160 reindeer are allotted to such a family in other parts of the world.
Nansalmaa, a veterinarian at the Central Veterinary Laboratory, was first to research the disease Brucellosis in the reindeer of Mongolia. She says that there are around ten types of contagious and non-contagious diseases for the Mongolian reindeer. Currently, reindeer in Zuun Taiga do not have this disease, but reindeer in Baruun Taiga have been infected. “Recently, I went on a group trip of vets to Taiga. We received information that the reindeer had suffered from an unfamiliar disease from which more than 40 reindeer had died in September. We brought samples of blood from the reindeer for analyses. We were too late: we could not reach the place in time. The intense period of the disease was over. In general, information is always late there – 10-20 days due to the remoteness. Veterinary service has become so difficult for the Tsaatan because the vets are in private hands that lack financial assistance and a professional staff.”
There is no definitive research on the Mongolian reindeer.
Battula emphasised: “For the purpose of improving the herd’s structure, under a Canadian government investment of over $5000, the Mongolian Reindeer Fund has already signed a contract for important 50 reindeer from Tuva.”
“The genetic heritage of the reindeer is not strong enough to survive without medicine,” Magali notes. She also stressed that illnesses due to inbreeding have greatly influenced the decrease of reindeer numbers. In order to strengthen the reindeer population, she is of the opinion that reindeer should be brought in from other countries to breed with the Mongolian reindeer.
“It was hard for our group to stay longer than one or two days in the reindeer camp; however, they tried to serve the guests with their best food. They live from hand to mouth,” Nansalmaa notes. Antlers of the reindeer are considered useful for medical treatment and sold at a high price. This practice presents a danger for the herd. “I’m against removing the antlers from the reindeer. In my opinion, it’s a big cause of infection and disease,” Battulga explains. Even though they use the reindeer for riding and loading, and use their meat, milk and skins, the families do not gain enough income from the small numbers of animals. Hunting and fishing are beneficial, but requires too much effort for too little reward. Some Tsaatan practice wood carving, though the market for such sculptures is limited if not nil.
Animal diseases, low numbers of herds, and limited assistance, portend the death of the traditional livelihood of the Tsaatan people.
The Mongolian Reindeer Fund, Central P.O. Box #8, UB-13, Mongolia, Tel.: 310248 (o) 343536 (h), e-mail:

Military Instructed to Organise Humanitarian Activities
Prime Minister N. Enkhbayar visited the 13th, 150th, and 228th army units last Friday. He stated that “military training should be directed towards humanitarian activities,” since there are no domestic or foreign threats to Mongolia at this time.
Due to the fact that Mongolia’s military is not internationally needed, he feels that military service organizations should aid Mongolia in its regeneration, assist in the prevention of containment of natural disasters, and create humanitarian activities.
The Prime Minister said that he was satisfied with his visits to the army units. Defense Minister J. Gurragchaa, Major General of the Armed Forces Ts. Dashzeveg, and other officials accompanied the Prime Minister on his visits to the different military units.

Illegal Immigrants Caught Crossing Mongolian Border
On September 23rd and 24th, three groups of North Korean citizens illegally crossed over the Mongolian border. The entrance point was near the Zamiin-Uud border. The groups consisted of five women, four children, and three men.
The immigrants received help from an American citizen, another North Korean citizen, and a Mongolian citizen. The two-day excursion ended after police caught the 12 illegal immigrants. The North Korean embassy ordered their immediate return.
Mongolian police sent US citizen Shin Douglas back home. Police are currently collecting identification documents on the North Korean citizen Li Dun-guk, who also aided the refugees in their escape.
The men who helped the escapees received approximately US$200-$500 for aiding in the border crossing. Shin Douglas and Li Dun-guk also entered Mongolia illegally three or four months prior to this recent offense.
Hurts, who acted as translator in this affair, is a Mongolian citizen.
The Korean refugees said that they had no money in their homeland and they wanted to make a new life for themselves in a free country. Some of the escapees were going to travel on to Europe.
In 1999 and 2000, twenty illegal North Korean immigrants have been stopped by Mongolian authorities.

A Brief History of the Tugrik
In October 1988, one U.S. dollar was equal to 2.5 tugriks; not a bad ratio. By April 1990, a dollar meant T5.65. After Mongolia entered the market economy in the spring of 1991, the exchange rate leapt to one dollar per 40 tugriks. In 1992, the tugrik continued its descent to a staggering value of T150-230 per U.S. dollar. In 1993, a dollar was worth T395; 1994: T410-420; 1995: T450-480; 1996: T570-630; 1997: T650-790; 1998: T820-950. In 1999, it reached T1010-1020. Today, the USD rate is at T1091-1094!

Counterfeit Bills Discovered
Several counterfeit 10,000-denomination tugrik bills were discovered by Mongolian banks. There are certain marks on the bill to aid in discriminating between counterfeit and true bills.
1. There is a little circle located above the words “Mongol Bank” that must match the reverse side’s circle. The words Mongol Bank, which are on the left side on the face side of the bill, are written in old Mongolian script.
2. On the face of the 10,000-tugrik bill, a serial number is written on the top right-hand side. Under this serial number, there is a watermark of Chinggis Khaan. This picture can only be seen when the bill is held up to light.
3. On the face of the bill, a thin wire strip next to the words “Mongol Bank” (in Cyrillic) runs down inside the right side of the bill. The lettering for Mongol Bank on the right side has also been written in Mongolian script. The metal strip can only be seen when the bill is held up to light.
4. On the face of the bill, a small oval is found on the right-hand side. In this oval shape is a picture of a national hero riding a horse and carrying a sword. The “10,000” currency mark is translucent in the oval shape.
The mark of “10,000” is raised on the face of the bill. A person should be able to feel the brail-like texture.
If you notice any unusual markings on a 10,000-tugrik bill, or if you do not see the security points mentioned above, please call the Mongol Bank at 327087 or 328368. If you are unable to reach these numbers, please call the police department.

Restoring Mongolia’s National Industry
The first debate session over the state budget concluded last week. The Budget Standing Committee in parliament has already begun preparing a second session this week. Several parliament members believe that it is possible to increase the state’s budget income by restoring national industry.
This move, they feel, will increase the national product and reduce unemployment. Unfortunately, no one has made any initiatives to restore national industry. There are no industries in Mongolia that have well-equipped facilities, advanced technology, or merchandise to raise industry to current international standards. These improvements require money that the government does not have.
The best way to restore these industries is through privatization. Several large Mongolian industries that were built during the socialist days closed because their production had a high primary cost. Their products could not compete with cheap Korean and Chinese products in the market.
A second option for increasing the state’s budget is to support foreign investment through decreasing bureaucracy and diversifying items for export. Mongolia’s exported goods this year included only limited items, such as cashmere, gold, and copper. If these products have a low price on the world market, Mongolia’s budget will suffer.
Parliament member D. Moron said, “the state does not receive all its due taxes on tobacco and alcohol. Therefore, an enforcement agency in charge of tax collecting will be established immediately. It does not take a lot of money to establish an agency.”

Foreign Trade Statistics for 2000
Foreign trade data for the first 8 months of 2000 is based on 10,749-export and 32,842-import customs declarations. 1,106-export and 955-import declarations belong to the goods passed through seasonal ports.
Total turnover of foreign trade for the first 8 months of 2000 amounted to USD 645 million, which means an increase of USD 162.9 million, or 33.8% compared to the same period last year. Imports exceeded exports by USD 77.2 million, and as a result, the foreign trade balance was in the negative. The difference between exports and imports increased by USD 15.3 million against the same period last year.
1.8% of total foreign trade (3.6% of exports and 0.5% of imports) comes through the seasonal ports. Compared to last year, the volume of exports has increased by 35.1%, being worth USD 283.9 million. Export of copper concentrate increased by 34,200 tons in comparison with 1999. The average unit price has gone up from USD 215.8 to USD 319.1. Total price increased from USD 65.3 to USD 107.5 million. Exports of raw hides and skins of bovine and equine animals increased by 777,392 pieces, with a total price increase of USD 9.9 million, while the average unit price of non-carded or non-combed cashmere grew by USD 13.1 million – a total price increase of USD 7.4 million. The export of cashmere pullovers, jerseys, and similar articles increased by USD 6.1 million, and sewn clothes have increased by USD 26.1 million. All these have positively influenced total export increases.
70.3% of export transactions are paid in hard currency, while barter makes up 3.2%, and re-export is 3.9%. Goods for repayment total 0.6%, and goods for internal processing are 21.3%.
Total export of minerals amounted to USD 121.4 million; copper and tungsten concentrate worth USD 109.7 million came from Erdenet and is equal to 90.4% of the whole export of minerals. Flourspar concentrate is equal to USD 8.6 million or 7.1% of total mineral exports. Exports of textiles and textile products equaled USD 117.5 million (41.4%), products of animal and vegetable origin are equal to USD 8.6 million (3%), raw hides and skins, processed hides and skins, furs, products thereof amounted to USD 27.2 million (9.6%), base metals and products thereof are equal to USD 3.4 million (1.2%), and a total of 97.7% of exportation came from the goods.
95.3% and 4.7% of copper concentrate were exported to China and the Russian Federation, respectively. The total volume of fluorspar concentrate was exported to the Russian Federation. Non-carded and combed cashmere, raw hides, and skins were exported to China. 56.8% of combed goat’s cashmere was exported to China, while 17.9%, 15.9%, and 3.1% were sent to Italy, England, and Japan, respectively. The above-mentioned products and raw materials are equal to 65.7% of the whole of exportation.
Flourspar concentrate with a value of USD 1.64 million were exported to the Russian Federation for payment of government debts and loans. Mongolia has exported goods to 33 foreign countries, including China (62.9%), the U.S.A. (20.6%), the Russian Federation (6.2%), Italy (2.2%), England (2.1%), and Japan (1%). 95% of all exports goes to these nations.
Goods and raw materials worth USD 361.1 million were imported into Mongolia. The volume of imports increased by USD 89.1 million or 32.7% compared with 1999. Imported goods consist of transactions paid in hard currency (51.1%), barter (0.3%), goods supplied by foreign loans (1.8%), goods imported as foreign aid (15.8%), goods imported as foreign investment (13.5%), and materials for internal processing (13.6%).
Imported minerals totalled USD 56.2 million. Among them, oil products are worth USD 50.2 million (89.3%), and electric power at USD 3.1 million (5.5%). Machinery, mechanical equipment and parts thereof, electric appliances and parts thereof, are valued at USD 82 million (22.7%). Vehicles and aircraft, and parts thereof, are valued at USD 42.3 million (11.7%). Chemical products are valued at USD 17.7 million (4.9%). Textiles and textile products: USD 52.6 million (14.6%). Optical, photographic, measuring, and medical appliances, watches and clocks, and musical instruments total USD 16.6 million (4.6%). Products of animal or vegetable origin and foodstuff: USD 55.5 million (15.2%). 93.5% of all imports are comprised of these goods and products.
Goods with a value of USD 57.2 million have been imported as foreign aid from international financial and economic organizations and donor countries. Taking into consideration the countries of origin: 65.7% and 11.2% of these goods were imported from Japan and China, while 7.7% of goods originated from Korea. 82.4% of the goods donated from donor countries come from Japan (73.2%), China (7.3%), and Germany (1.9%). 95.3% of foreign aid was imported as grants, while 4.7% of them came as humanitarian aid.
Goods worth USD 6.3 million were imported as foreign loans from international financial and economic organizations and donor countries. These goods originated from China (38.1%), Germany (14.3%), India (14.3%), and Singapore (7.1%), among others. Total aid goods were imported as government loans. 33.3% of loans were lent by the World Bank, 30.25% from the Asian Development Bank, and 14.3% were lent by Japan.
USD 48.7 million worth of goods were imported to the charted fund of joint ventures and companies with foreign investment. These goods originated from countries such as the Russian Federation (47%), China (11.3%), Japan (8.4%), and the U.S.A. (6.6%). Mongolia has imported goods from 55 different countries, including the Russian Federation (30.4%), China (19.3%), Japan (14.5%), Korea (9.3%), Germany (4.1%), the U.S.A. (3.6%), and Hong Kong (2.5%). Goods from these countries are equal to 83.7% of total imports.

Telecommunications Review: Mobicom
According to statistics from the third quarter of this year, profits at Mobicom Company represent 85% of total profits for all telecommunication companies in Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar telecommunication companies have generated revenues of T12.3 million, 61% of which (T7.5 million) was made through public payments.

Canadian Dollar – Mongolian Tugrik Exchange Rate: CAD$1 = T718.57

Foreign Citizens in Mongolia
According to statistics from the first eight months of this year, there are 1400 people from Russia, 1400 Chinese, 91 people from other countries, and 60 stateless people residing in Mongolia permanently. 4320 people are staying in Mongolia for a long-term period of time, and 1573 people are staying short-term (1-3 months). The “official” number of total foreigners living in Mongolia is 7200, but this number is speculative due to the lack of proper networking and control.

Fire in Tamsag, Dornod
Last week, a blaze broke out in an oil drilling field of the U.S. company Satamo in Tamsag, Dornod. J. Enkhbaatar, a 25-year-old operator, died in the fire.
Sixteen firefighters extinguished the fires located in the oil drillings and in the machine repair department. Investigators have been working to discover the cause of the fire.

Weather Forecast
Cooler temperatures are expected in the eastern half of Mongolia on Thursday. The Altai, Khangai, Khovsgol, and Khentii mountainous areas will be –18 C to –22 C at night, and –5 C to –10 C during the day.
The Gobi aimags are expected to range between +2 C and +3 C during the daylight hours, and –8 C to –13 C at night.
Other areas in Mongolia are expected to have temperatures of –12 C and –17 C at night, and –1 C and –6 C during the day. Through the weekend, temperatures are expected to be slightly warmer.

1999-2000 Zud
Zud is a Mongolian term designating the conditions of winter and spring. There are “black” and “white” zuds. A black zud means that there is no snow or grass, and little water. A white zud brings much snow. Last year’s zud was both black and white; this is the worst possible scenario.
Mongolian herders lost 2.4 million livestock from the 1999-2000 disaster. Thirteen aimags were affected.

Research On Mental Illness
Over 300,000 people in Mongolia suffere from mental disorders. B. Ayushjav, who is a leading psychologist in Mongolia and the vice-director of the Psychiatric Centre at Shar Had Hospital, said that the clinic discovered the statistic after 20 years of research.
The total number of mentally retarded people in Mongolia is approximately 50,000-55,000; 250,000-300,000 people cope with neuroses. Among those people who have severe mental disorders are homeless persons, prostitutes, and alcoholics. Research disclosed that more cases of mental illness are found in cities rather than in the countryside.

A Case of Criminal Cucumbers
On October 16, investigators looked into a case of illegal cucumber production. The Mon Ogooj Company, founded in Vietnam, has been manufacturing cucumbers with the label “Made In Vietnam”; however, the produce was not harvested in Vietnam, but rather through a secret tunnel in apartment building #22 in the Bayanzurkh district. Heat passes through the tunnel, which creates warmth for the cucumbers, insects and rodents living there.
Harvesting the produce breaks the Consumer Law. Tax evasion was also charged against the culprits. Police found over 7000 cucumbers and 67 boxes which had the “Made In Vietnam” label on them. 26 sacks of bottle lids and 1177 false labels were also discovered.
Some of the cucumbers had spoiled.
Three Vietnamese citizens were overseeing the production. The employees were Mongolian citizens.

More Cars On The Road In Mongolia
Through consistent motor vehicles inspections by the police, the government has been able to determine whether automobiles are complying with safety and environmental regulations. These inspections also show how many vehicles are currently driven throughout the nation. No vehicle is permitted to operate on public roads unless it passes a vehicle inspection and receives a certificate of authorisation.
In May 1995, 56,425 vehicles were operated in Mongolia, according to the annual registration poll taken by the police. Surprisingly, in May 1997, there were recorded 35,594 cars, 26,580 trucks, 4070 buses, 1902 cargo vehicles for carrying fuel and other goods, and 2052 all-purpose vehicles. A total of 70,198 vehicles were registered in May of 1997. Aside from these automobiles, 26,116 motorcycles, 11,339 farming equipment, and 7170 trailers were also registered in May 1997.
Last April, another car inspection was taken; it was discovered that over 81,700 motor vehicles are currently on the roads in Mongolia. Out of this number, 44,000 are cars, 24,700 are trucks, 8500 are buses, 1700 are cargo carriers, and 2700 are all-purpose vehicles. There are 41,700 vehicles alone in Ulaanbaatar. Out of this number, 26,400 are cars, 6700 are trucks, 5900 are buses, 1200 are all-purpose vehicles, and 700 are cargo carriers.
Currently, vehicles made in over 20 different countries and over 600 different styles are driven in this country. 72.2% of all the vehicles in Mongolia are from Russia, 9.6% are from Korea, 7.9% are from Germany, 6.6% are from Japan, 1.3% are from China, 1.1% are from the USA, and the remaining 1.3% are from other various nations.
The cost of motor vehicles in Mongolia varies depending on the season. Usually, during the late spring and summer months, prices rise for automobiles. In the fall and winter months, prices usually drop because people prefer not to drive during the winter. (Roads are iced over, and the freezing temperatures cause car accidents and engine trouble.) Another factor also affects the cost of motor vehicles in Mongolia: the world market.
Currently, vehicle prices are dropping in Mongolia. On October 24th, there were approximately 50 different vehicles makes at the used automobile market in Ulaanbaatar. Russian Jeeps were priced between US$4400-$4600, Korean Jeeps were around $7500, Japanese Jeeps between $4500-$8000, Mercedes Benz 180s were selling for $3500, Mercedes Benz 190s for $4500, and Mercedes Benz 2000s at $7000. The ever-popular Korean Hyundai Excel, which is widely used in Mongolia, was around $2800-$3500, and the Accent models were approximately $4300-$4500.